Medical News Today: Can you use Vicks on a baby?

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Medical News Today: What are the symptoms of a polyp of the cervix?

A cervical polyp is a growth that develops on the cervix, which is the canal connecting the uterus to the vagina. Sperm must pass through this canal to fertilize an egg. Cervical polyps are tumors, but they are usually non-cancerous, or benign.

However, as polyps have a similar appearance to some signs of cancer, it is essential that a doctor checks them to ensure that they are not cancerous.

Cervical polyps can grow either as singular masses or in clusters. They vary in size but are usually around 1–2 centimeters (cm) long.

The women most likely to develop cervical polyps are those in their 40s and 50s who have given birth to more than one child. Higher estrogen levels can also make pregnant people more susceptible to them.

Causes and what they look like

Polyp in cervix
Polyps are growths that develop in the body.

Polyps can vary in color from a gray, almost-white color to bright red or purple. They can grow to different sizes and look like bulbs growing on stems.

Two different types of polyp can develop on the cervix:

  • Ectocervical polyps: Postmenopausal women are more likely to have these polyps, which grow on the cells in the outer surface layer of the cervix.
  • Endocervical polyps: More common overall, endocervical polyps grow from cervical glands inside the cervical canal. This type of polyp is more likely to affect women who are premenopausal.

It is not clear why some women develop polyps, although the causes may include the body responding abnormally to estrogen.

Other causes may include:

  • raised or high estrogen levels
  • blood vessels becoming clogged
  • inflammation of the cervix, vagina, or uterus

Estrogen is the female sex hormone, and levels of this hormone will rise and fall throughout a woman’s life. Estrogen levels peak during childbearing years, so cervical polyps are more likely to occur during this time.

Estrogen levels will rise during pregnancy as well.

It is also possible for chemical estrogens in products such as air fresheners to affect estrogen levels.

Inflammation of the cervix may occur due to many reasons including:

It is very rare for people who have not yet started menstruating to develop cervical polyps.


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Symptoms

Woman with period pad or panty liner on lap for menstrual discharge or spotting.
Periods that are heavier than usual may be a symptom of cervical polyps.

It is possible for someone to develop cervical polyps and not experience any symptoms.

Others will notice symptoms, which may include:

  • vaginal discharge that may be foul-smelling if an infection is present
  • a heavier flow during periods
  • spotting between periods
  • bleeding after sexual intercourse
  • bleeding after douching
  • bleeding after the menopause

When should someone see a doctor?

If people experience any of these symptoms, they should make an appointment with their doctor as soon as possible. While these can be signs of cervical polyps, they could also indicate cancer.

The diagnosis of most cervical polyps takes place during routine pelvic examinations or Pap smear tests.

If polyps are present, a doctor may wish to remove them. The doctor will also take tissue samples, called biopsies, of the polyps to check whether they are cancerous or benign.


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Treatment options

Woman in gynecologists office.
A doctor may recommend surgical removal of cervical polyps.

Most cervical polyps are benign and possible to remove surgically.

Treatment may not be necessary if the polyps are not causing any symptoms or discomfort, but a doctor will continue to monitor the polyps closely.

There are different methods for surgically removing polyps.

These might involve a doctor:

  • using polyp forceps to take hold of the polyp and pull it out gently
  • tying surgical string around the polyp before cutting it out
  • twisting the polyp at its base and pulling it off

The doctor will then use liquid nitrogen, laser surgery, or electrocautery ablation to destroy the base of the polyp.

For very large polyps, surgical removal will generally need to take place in an operating room at a hospital using local, regional, or general anesthesia.

After the removal of a polyp, the individual may experience some bleeding and cramping. Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers should reduce the discomfort.

The polyp or polyps will need testing to check for cancer. If a polyp is cancerous, further treatment is likely to be necessary. The treatment will depend on the type of cancer.

Sometimes, cervical polyps may come away from the cervix on their own. This can happen during menstruation or sexual intercourse.

What is the recovery like?

People may feel mild pain and discomfort during the removal of the polyps. However, once the procedure is over, they will be able to go home and treat any cramping or pain with OTC pain relievers.

Even if the surgery takes place in a hospital under anesthesia, the individual should still be able to go home on the same day.

Doctors recommend that people abstain from sexual intercourse for at least 3 days following the surgery.

The outlook for people who have had surgical polyp removal is positive. The polyps do not usually grow back.

However, someone who has developed cervical polyps in the past does have a higher risk of developing them again. Therefore, they should have routine pelvic examinations to check for new growths.

Takeaway and prevention

Most cases of cervical polyps are not possible to prevent.

However, having regular pelvic examinations and Pap smear tests should ensure that doctors can catch any polyps and treat them early on.

It is possible that some infections could contribute to cervical polyps developing. Due to this, practicing safe sex and proper hygiene to avoid infection may also help to prevent cervical polyps.

People can also wear cotton underwear to increase the airflow to the area. This will prevent the region from becoming too hot and moist, which is the perfect environment for infections to thrive.

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Medical News Today: What are the treatment options for BPH?

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Medical News Today: How long does it take to recover from heart bypass surgery?

Heart bypass surgery is the most common type of heart surgery performed on adults. Doctors recommend heart bypass surgery when one or more of the blood vessels that transport blood to the heart muscles become partially blocked.

Heart bypass surgery is a complicated procedure that involves a significant amount of preparation and recovery time. Occasionally, someone must undergo emergency heart bypass surgery, but most of the time the operation is planned.

Heart bypass surgery is a relatively safe and effective procedure that reduces the risk of heart attack and death. The procedure might also ease symptoms of coronary artery disease, such as chest pain.

What is the procedure?

surgeon making heart shape with hands
A heart bypass can lower the risk of a heart attack.

Doctors typically have a range of options at their disposal to fix the blockage. If left untreated, coronary artery disease can lead to heart attack and even death.

When possible, doctors may try to resolve the issue of blocked arteries with medication and less-invasive procedures, such as a stent.

If these options do not work or are not suitable for an individual, surgeons might decide to perform heart bypass surgery.

Heart bypass surgery is one of the most effective weapons against blocked arteries and the problems they cause.

The medical name for heart bypass surgery is coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).

According to the American Heart Association, CABG involves removing a blood vessel from the chest, arms, or legs and using it to create a detour or bypass around the blockage. This allows blood to reach the heart again.

Surgeons can address more than one artery in a single operation. A double bypass involves two repairs, a triple bypass involves three, and a quadruple bypass involves four. The quintuple bypass is the most intricate heart bypass surgery and includes all five of the major arteries feeding the heart.

Removing a blood vessel from another part of the body will not substantially affect blood flow in the area the vessel came from.


Types of heart bypass surgery

Heart bypass surgery is typically an open-heart surgery, which means that the surgeon cuts the chest open to reach the heart. The surgeon can then perform the surgery “on-pump” or “off-pump.”

On-pump surgery involves using a heart-lung machine that circulates blood and breathes for the body. The machine allows doctors to stop the heart, which makes the operation easier.

Off-pump surgery, also called “beating heart surgery,” takes place while the heart is still beating, but does not use the heart-lung machine.

Sometimes, a surgeon can perform heart bypass surgery without opening the chest.

Risks and potential complications vary for each person. A doctor can help decide which treatment is the best option for each person.


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What should people expect before the surgery?

administering medication via iv tube
An IV enables medicines and fluids to be administered directly into the body.

Before heart bypass surgery, people should:

  • refrain from taking any drugs containing aspirin for 3 days before the surgery
  • stop smoking immediately, as smoking creates mucus in the lungs that can interfere with recovery
  • arrange for someone to stay with them after returning home
  • avoid eating or drinking after midnight on the night before surgery
  • follow any other instructions provided by the doctor or care team

Some people might want to donate their own blood beforehand for use during the surgery.

A person undergoing a planned heart bypass operation will have an opportunity to discuss the procedure with their doctor before the operation. The care team will explain the surgery, set up arrival times, and help complete paperwork.

Many people may undergo tests before the surgery including an electrocardiogram (EKG), chest X-ray, and blood tests.

Before the operation, nurses insert a needle (IV) into the person’s arm. The IV will allow fluids and medicines to enter the body as needed.

A member of the healthcare team might also shave the areas where a surgeon will make their incisions.

Immediately before the surgery, the doctors provide medicine that causes a deep sleep until after the operation.

Although times can vary, heart bypass surgery usually lasts between 3 and 6 hours.


Success rate

Heart bypass surgeries are serious but relatively safe.

Surgeons perform hundreds of thousands of heart bypass operations each year and many of those who have the surgery get relief from their symptoms without needing long-term medication.

The more severe the heart disease, the higher the risk of complications. However, the mortality rate is low, and according to one report, only 2–3 percent of people who undergo heart bypass surgery die as a result of the operation.

Recovery time

After waking up, a person will have a tube down their throat that helps them to breathe. It will feel strange and uncomfortable, but it is necessary. Usually, a doctor will remove the tube after 24 hours.

On average, a person will remain in the hospital for about a week after surgery. It is normal to experience soreness and night sweats, and there is likely to be some fluid in the lungs, so people should expect a good bit of coughing.

People usually start to eat and move around soon after the doctor has removed the breathing tube.

Common post-surgery medications typically include drugs called platelet inhibitors, which help prevent blood clots.


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How will life change after the surgery?

nurse talking to patient after surgery
Generally, a person will stay in the hospital for about a week after surgery.

Complications are possible but unusual. Assuming there are no complications, most people can expect a better quality of life quite soon after surgery.

Improvements include reduced chest pain, as well as other symptoms related to blocked coronary arteries.

More importantly, successful heart bypass surgery typically means that a person is at a much lower risk of heart attack and death.

After having heart bypass surgery, a person will most likely need to take aspirin every day for the rest of their life.

Takeaway

Heart disease continues to be a top health problem in the United States. There are many options for treating heart disease. For hundreds of thousands of people each year, heart bypass surgery is the best choice to address blocked arteries.

Heart bypass surgery is safe and effective and can help people regain the quality of life they experienced before they developed the heart condition.

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Medical News Today: What is fluoxetine?

Highlights for fluoxetine

  1. Fluoxetine oral capsule is available as brand-name drugs and as a generic drug. Brand names: Prozac and Prozac Weekly.
  2. Fluoxetine comes in four forms: capsule, delayed-release capsule, tablet, and solution. All forms are taken by mouth.
  3. Fluoxetine oral capsule is used to treat different types of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, some eating disorders, and panic attacks.


Important warnings

FDA warning: Suicidal thoughts and actions

  • This drug has a black box warning. This is the most serious warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A black box warning alerts doctors and patients about drug effects that may be dangerous.
  • Fluoxetine can increase the risk of suicidal thinking and behavior. This risk is especially high in children, adolescents, and young adults. The risk is higher during the first few months of treatment with this drug. You’re also at higher risk if you have a personal or family history of bipolar illness or suicidal thoughts or actions. Your doctor and family should watch you closely when you start taking this drug and during dosage changes. They should watch for changes in your behavior or signs of worsening depression.

Other warnings

  • Serotonin syndrome warning: This drug can cause a life-threatening condition called serotonin syndrome. This syndrome happens when medications cause too much serotonin to build up in your body. Symptoms can include agitation, hallucinations (seeing or hearing something that isn’t there), problems with coordination, and a racing heart rate. They can also include overactive reflexes, fever, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. Call your doctor right away if you have any signs of this condition.
  • Mania warning: This drug may cause mania. Symptoms include greatly increased energy, extreme irritability, talking more or faster than usual, racing thoughts, or severe trouble sleeping.
  • Low salt levels warning: This drug may cause you to have dangerously low salt levels in your blood. Symptoms include headache, weakness, confusion, trouble concentrating, memory problems, and feeling unsteady. Call your doctor right away if you have any symptoms of this condition.

What is fluoxetine?

Fluoxetine is a prescription drug. It comes as a capsule, delayed-release capsule, tablet, and solution. All forms are taken by mouth. (A delayed-release capsule is released into your body more slowly.)

Fluoxetine oral capsule is available as the brand-name drugs Prozac and Prozac Weekly. It’s also available as a generic drug. Generic drugs usually cost less than brand-name versions. In some cases, they may not be available in every strength or form as brand-name drugs.

Fluoxetine oral capsule may be used as part of a combination therapy. This means you may need to take it with other medications. For the treatment of depressive episodes related to bipolar I disorder and treatment-resistant depression, this drug must be used with olanzapine.

Why it’s used

Fluoxetine oral capsule is used to treat the following conditions:

  • Depression. This includes major depression.
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder. This condition causes bothersome thoughts that won’t go away (obsessions) and the need to do certain actions over and over (compulsions).
  • Bulimia nervosa. This condition is an eating disorder marked by binge eating followed by extreme behaviors to avoid gaining weight (purging, fasting, or excessive exercise).
  • Panic attacks. These are sudden episodes of extreme fear and worry even though no threat exists.

How it works

Fluoxetine oral capsule belongs to a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). A class of drugs is a group of medications that work in a similar way. These drugs are often used to treat similar conditions.

Fluoxetine works by increasing the amount of serotonin (a natural substance) in your brain. Serotonin helps maintain mental health balance. An increase in serotonin helps to treat symptoms of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, and panic attacks.


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Fluoxetine side effects

Fluoxetine oral capsule doesn’t cause drowsiness, but it can cause other side effects.

More common side effects

The more common side effects of fluoxetine can include:

  • strange dreams
  • decreased sex drive and trouble having an orgasm
  • decreased appetite
  • anxiety and nervousness
  • weakness
  • diarrhea
  • dry mouth
  • indigestion
  • flu
  • erectile dysfunction (trouble getting or keeping an erection)
  • trouble sleeping
  • nausea
  • sore throat
  • rash
  • watery nasal discharge
  • sleepiness
  • sweating and hot flashes
  • tremors (uncontrollable rhythmic movement in one part of your body)
  • yawning
  • If these effects are mild, they may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. If they’re more severe or don’t go away, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Serious side effects

Call your doctor right away if you have serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency. Serious side effects and their symptoms can include the following:

  • Serotonin syndrome. Symptoms can include:
    • agitation (feeling aggravated or restless)
    • hallucinations (seeing or hearing something that isn’t there)
    • problems with coordination
    • racing heart rate
    • overactive reflexes
    • fever
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
  • Abnormal bleeding. Symptoms can include:
    • bruising or bleeding more easily than normal
  • Mania. Symptoms can include:
    • greatly increased energy
    • severe trouble sleeping
    • racing thoughts
    • reckless behavior
    • unusually grand ideas
    • excessive happiness or irritability
    • talking more or faster than normal
  • Seizures
  • Low salt levels in your blood. Symptoms can include:
    • headache
    • weakness
    • confusion
    • trouble concentrating
    • memory problems
    • feeling unsteady

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs affect each person differently, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible side effects. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always discuss possible side effects with a healthcare provider who knows your medical history.

Fluoxetine may interact with other medications

Fluoxetine oral capsule can interact with other medications, vitamins, or herbs you may be taking. An interaction is when a substance changes the way a drug works. This can be harmful or prevent the drug from working well.

To help avoid interactions, your doctor should manage all of your medications carefully. Be sure to tell your doctor about all medications, vitamins, or herbs you’re taking. To find out how this drug might interact with something else you’re taking, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Examples of drugs that can cause interactions with fluoxetine are listed below.

Drugs you should not use with fluoxetine

Do not take these drugs with fluoxetine. Doing so can cause dangerous effects in your body. Examples of these drugs include:

  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), such as isocarboxazid, phenelzine, and tranylcypromine. You shouldn’t take fluoxetine if you take an MAOI or if you’ve stopped taking an MAOI within the last two weeks. Don’t take an MAOI within five weeks of stopping fluoxetine. Taking these drugs too close together could cause serious and life-threatening side effects. Symptoms include high fever, constant muscle spasms that you can’t control, and stiff muscles. They also include fast changes in your heart rate and blood pressure, confusion, and unconsciousness.
  • Thioridazine. You shouldn’t take these drugs together. Don’t take thioridazine within five weeks of stopping fluoxetine. Taking these drugs together can cause serious heart rhythm problems. These problems can cause you to die suddenly.
  • Pimozide. You shouldn’t take these drugs together. Fluoxetine can cause the levels of pimozide to increase in your body. This raises your risk for heart rhythm problems.

Interactions that increase your risk of side effects

Increased side effects: Taking fluoxetine with certain medications raises your risk of side effects. This is because fluoxetine and these other medications can cause the same side effects. These drugs include serotonergic drugs, such as:

  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine and sertraline
  • serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSNRIs) such as duloxetine and venlafaxine
  • tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) such as amitriptyline and clomipramine
  • the opioids fentanyl and tramadol
  • the anxiolytic buspirone
  • triptans
  • lithium
  • tryptophan
  • St. John’s wort
  • amphetamines

Taking these drugs with fluoxetine may increase your risk of serotonin syndrome, which can be fatal. If you take any of these drugs, your doctor will start you on a lowered dosage of fluoxetine and monitor you for signs of serotonin syndrome. Symptoms can include agitation, sweating, muscle twitches, and confusion.

Increased side effects from other drugs: Taking fluoxetine with certain medications raises your risk of side effects from these drugs. Examples of these drugs include:

  • Benzodiazepines, such as triazolam and midazolam. Taking these drugs together may cause more sedation and drowsiness.
  • Warfarin. Taking these drugs together may cause an increase in bleeding. Your doctor will monitor you closely.
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Taking these drugs together may cause an increase in bleeding. Your doctor will monitor you closely.
  • Aspirin. Taking these drugs together may cause an increase in bleeding. Your doctor will monitor you closely.
  • Drugs broken down by the enzyme CYPD2D6, such as aripiprazole, dextromethorphan, and risperidone. Taking these drugs with fluoxetine may increase your risk of serotonin syndrome, heart rhythm problems, and involuntary muscle movements.
  • Lithium. Your doctor should monitor your lithium blood levels if you need to take these drugs together.
  • Phenytoin. Taking these drugs together may cause confusion, dizziness, and fever. You may also have changes in your behavior. These changes include anger, irritability, or sadness. Your doctor should monitor the level of phenytoin in your body.
  • Carbamazepine. Taking these drugs together can cause blurred vision, vertigo, or tremors. Your doctor should monitor the level of carbamazepine in your body.

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs interact differently in each person, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible interactions. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always speak with your healthcare provider about possible interactions with all prescription drugs, vitamins, herbs and supplements, and over-the-counter drugs that you are taking.


Fluoxetine warnings

This drug comes with several warnings.

Allergy warning

This medication can cause a severe allergic reaction. Symptoms can include:

  • hives
  • rash alone or with a fever and joint pain
  • trouble breathing
  • swelling of your throat or tongue

If you develop these symptoms, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room.

Don’t take this drug again if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to it. Taking it again could be fatal (cause death).

Warnings for people with certain health conditions

For people with blood clotting disorders: This drug may cause you to bleed more easily. If you take another drug to thin your blood, it could cause dangerous bleeding.

For people with diabetes: This drug may cause low blood sugar levels. Once you stop taking this drug, it may cause your blood sugar levels to increase.

For people with bipolar I disorder: You shouldn’t take this drug alone to treat depression associated with bipolar I disorder. This drug may increase your risk of a mixed or manic episode.

For people with liver disease: If you have liver problems or a history of liver disease, your body may not be able to process this drug as well. This may increase the levels of this drug in your body and cause more side effects. Your doctor may lower your dose or have you take this drug less often.

Warnings for other groups

For pregnant women: This drug is a category C pregnancy drug. That means two things:

  1. Research in animals has shown adverse effects to the fetus when the mother takes the drug.
  2. There haven’t been enough studies done in humans to be certain how the drug might affect the fetus.

Talk to your doctor if you’re pregnant or planning to become pregnant. This drug should only be used if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk.

If you become pregnant while taking this drug, call your doctor right away.

For women who are breastfeeding: This drug may pass into breast milk and may cause side effects in a child who is breastfed. Talk to your doctor if you breastfeed your child. You may need to decide whether to stop breastfeeding or stop taking this medication.

For seniors: Seniors may have a higher risk of side effects from this drug. Because of this risk, your doctor may lower your dosage or have you take the medication less often.

For children:

Bulimia nervosa and panic disorder: This drug hasn’t been studied in children for these conditions. It shouldn’t be used in people younger than 18 years.

Major depressive disorder: This drug shouldn’t be used in children younger than 8 years for this condition.

Obsessive-compulsive disorder: This drug shouldn’t be used in children younger than 7 years for this condition.

How to take fluoxetine

All possible dosages and drug forms may not be included here. Your dosage, drug form, and how often you take the drug will depend on:

  • your age
  • the condition being treated
  • how severe your condition is
  • other medical conditions you have
  • how you react to the first dose

Dosage for bulimia nervosa

Generic: Fluoxetine

  • Form: oral capsule
  • Strengths: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Brand: Prozac

  • Form: oral capsule
  • Strengths: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Adult dosage (ages 18 to 64 years)

Typical dosage: 60 mg per day taken in the morning.

Child dosage (ages 0 to 17 years)

This drug hasn’t been studied in children for this condition. It shouldn’t be used in people younger than 18 years.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Seniors may have a higher risk of side effects from this drug. Because of this risk, your doctor may lower your dosage or reduce how often you take the drug.

Dosage for major depressive disorder

Generic: Fluoxetine

  • Form: oral capsule
  • Strengths: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg
  • Form: oral delayed-release capsule
  • Strength: 90 mg

Brand: Prozac

  • Form: oral capsule
  • Strengths: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Brand: Prozac Weekly

  • Form: oral delayed-release capsule
  • Strength: 90 mg

Adult dosage (ages 18 to 64 years)

  • Typical dosage: 20–80 mg per day.
  • Maximum dosage: 80 mg per day.
  • Initial dosage: 20 mg per day taken in the morning.
  • Alternative dosage: You may be a candidate for taking this drug once per week. In this case, your doctor will stop your daily dose of the immediate-release capsules and switch you over to the delayed-release capsules. You’ll take 90 mg once per week. You’ll start taking it seven days after your last daily dose of fluoxetine.

Child dosage (ages 8 to 17 years)

  • Typical dosage: 10–20 mg per day.
  • Initial dosage: After your child takes 10 mg per day for one week, your doctor may increase their dosage to 20 mg per day.

Child dosage (ages 0–7 years)

This drug shouldn’t be used in children younger than 8 years for this condition.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Seniors may have a higher risk of side effects from this drug. Because of this risk, your doctor may lower your dose or reduce how often you take the drug.

Dosage for obsessive-compulsive disorder

Generic: Fluoxetine

  • Form: oral capsule
  • Strengths: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Brand: Prozac

  • Form: oral capsule
  • Strengths: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Adult dosage (ages 18 to 64 years)

  • Typical dosage: 20–60 mg per day.
  • Maximum dosage: 80 mg per day.
  • Initial dosage: 20 mg per day taken in the morning.

Child dosage (ages 13 to 17 years, and higher weight children)

  • Typical dosage: 20–60 mg per day.
  • Initial dosage: 10 mg per day. After two weeks, your doctor will likely increase your child’s dosage to 20 mg per day.

Child dosage (ages 7 to 12, and lower weight children)

  • Typical dosage: 20–30 mg per day.
  • Initial dosage: 10 mg per day.

Child dosage (ages 0 to 6 years)

This drug shouldn’t be used in children younger than 7 years for this condition.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Seniors may have a higher risk of side effects from this drug. Because of this risk, your doctor may lower your dosage or reduce how often you take the drug.

Dosage for panic disorder

Generic: Fluoxetine

  • Form: oral capsule
  • Strengths: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Brand: Prozac

  • Form: oral capsule
  • Strengths: 10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg

Adult dosage (ages 18 to 64 years)

  • Typical dosage: 20–60 mg per day.
  • Initial dosage: 10 mg per day. After one week, your doctor will likely increase your dosage to 20 mg per day.

Child dosage (ages 0 to 17 years)

This drug hasn’t been studied in children for this condition. It shouldn’t be used in people younger than 18 years.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Seniors may have a higher risk of side effects from this drug. Because of this risk, your doctor may lower your dosage or reduce how often you take the drug.

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs affect each person differently, we cannot guarantee that this list includes all possible dosages. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always to speak with your doctor or pharmacist about dosages that are right for you.


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Take as directed

Fluoxetine oral capsule is used for short- and long-term treatment of bulimia nervosa, major depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. It’s also used for short-term treatment of panic attacks.

This drug comes with serious risks if you don’t take it as prescribed.

If you stop taking the drug suddenly or don’t take it at all: If you don’t take this drug, the symptoms of your condition may not improve.

Don’t stop taking this drug without talking to your doctor first. Stopping this drug too quickly may cause serious symptoms. These can include:

  • anxiety
  • irritability
  • mood swings
  • restlessness
  • changes in your sleep habits
  • headache
  • sweating
  • nausea
  • dizziness

If you miss doses or don’t take the drug on schedule: Your medication may not work as well or may stop working completely. For this drug to work well, a certain amount needs to be in your body at all times.

If you take too much: You could have dangerous levels of the drug in your body. Symptoms of an overdose of this drug can include:

  • tiredness
  • vomiting
  • fast heart rate
  • nausea
  • dizziness
  • agitation
  • tremors

If you think you’ve taken too much of this drug, call your doctor or seek guidance from the American Association of Poison Control Centers at 800-222-1222 or through their online tool. But if your symptoms are severe, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room right away.

What to do if you miss a dose: Take your dose as soon as you remember. But if you remember just a few hours before your next scheduled dose, take only one dose. Never try to catch up by taking two doses at once. This could result in dangerous side effects.

How to tell if the drug is working: The symptoms of your condition should improve. However, you might not feel better right when you start taking this drug. It can take 1–4 weeks to start working.

Important considerations for taking fluoxetine

Keep these considerations in mind if your doctor prescribes fluoxetine for you.

General

  • You can take this drug with or without food.
  • Take this drug at the time(s) recommended by your doctor.
  • Don’t open the oral capsules or oral delayed-release capsules.

Storage

  • Store this drug at room temperature. Keep it between 59°F and 86°F (15°C and 30°C).
  • Keep this drug away from light.
  • Don’t store this medication in moist or damp areas, such as bathrooms.

Refills

A prescription for this medication is refillable. You should not need a new prescription for this medication to be refilled. Your doctor will write the number of refills authorized on your prescription.

Travel

When traveling with your medication:

  • Always carry your medication with you. When flying, never put it into a checked bag. Keep it in your carry-on bag.
  • Don’t worry about airport X-ray machines. They can’t harm your medication.
  • You may need to show airport staff the pharmacy label for your medication. Always carry the original prescription-labeled container with you.
  • Don’t put this medication in your car’s glove compartment or leave it in the car. Be sure to avoid doing this when the weather is very hot or very cold.

Clinical monitoring

You and your doctor should monitor certain health issues. This can help make sure you stay safe while you take this drug. These health issues include:

  • Mental health and behavioral problems. You and your doctor should watch for any unusual changes in your behavior and mood. This drug can cause new mental health and behavior problems. It may also worsen problems you already have.

Are there any alternatives?

There are other drugs available to treat your condition. Some may be better suited for you than others. Talk to your doctor about other drug options that may work for you.

Disclaimer: Healthline has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up-to-date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or other healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.

Source Article from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322413.php

Medical News Today: What is lisinopril?

Important warnings

  • Angioedema (swelling): This drug can cause abrupt swelling of your face, arms, legs, lips, tongue, throat, and intestines. This can be fatal. Tell your doctor right away if you have swelling or abdominal pain. You’ll be taken off of this drug and possibly given medication to reduce your swelling. Swelling can happen at any time while you’re taking this drug. Your risk may be higher if you have a history of angioedema.
  • Hypotension (low blood pressure): This drug can cause low blood pressure, especially during the first few days of taking it. Tell your doctor if you feel lightheaded, dizzy, or like you’re going to faint. You may be more likely to have low blood pressure if you:
    • aren’t drinking enough fluids
    • are sweating heavily
    • have diarrhea or are vomiting
    • have heart failure
    • are on dialysis
    • take diuretics
  • Persistent cough: This drug may cause a persistent cough. This cough will go away once you stop taking the medication.

What is lisinopril?

Lisinopril oral tablet is a prescription drug that’s available as the brand-name drugs Prinivil and Zestril. It’s also available as a generic drug. Generic drugs usually cost less. In some cases, they may not be available in every strength or form as the brand-name version.

Why it’s used

This drug is used to treat high blood pressure and heart failure. It’s also used to improve your chance of survival after a heart attack.

This drug may be used as part of a combination therapy. That means you may need to take it with other drugs.

How it works

This drug belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors.

A class of drugs is a group of medications that work in a similar way. They have a similar chemical structure and are often used to treat similar conditions.

This drug relaxes the blood vessels in your body. This reduces stress on your heart and lowers your blood pressure.

Lisinopril side effects

Lisinopril oral tablet does not cause drowsiness. However, it may cause low blood pressure. This can make you feel faint or dizzy. You shouldn’t drive, use machinery, or do other activities that require alertness until you know how this drug affects you. Lisinopril can also have other side effects.

More common side effects

The most common side effects that occur with lisinopril include:

  • headache
  • dizziness
  • persistent cough
  • low blood pressure
  • chest pain

If these effects are mild, they may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. If they’re more severe or don’t go away, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Serious side effects

Call your doctor right away if you have any of these serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency.

  • hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction. Symptoms include:
    • swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat
    • trouble breathing
    • trouble swallowing
    • stomach (abdomen) pain with or without nausea or vomiting
  • kidney problems. Symptoms include:
    • tiredness
    • swelling, especially of your hands, feet, or ankles
    • shortness of breath
    • weight gain
  • liver failure. Symptoms include:
    • yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes
    • elevated liver enzymes
    • stomach pain
    • nausea and vomiting
  • high potassium levels. This drug can cause dangerously high potassium. This can lead to arrhythmia (heart rate or rhythm problems). Your risk may be higher if you have kidney disease or diabetes, or if you’re taking other drugs that increase potassium levels.

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs affect each person differently, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible side effects. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always discuss possible side effects with a healthcare provider who knows your medical history.

Lisinopril may interact with other medications

Lisinopril oral tablet can interact with other medications, herbs, or vitamins you might be taking. An interaction is when a substance changes the way a drug works. This can be harmful or cause the drugs that you take to not work as well.

To help prevent interactions, your doctor should manage all of your medications carefully. To find out how this drug might interact with something else you’re taking, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Examples of drugs that can cause interactions with lisinopril are listed below.

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Blood pressure drugs

Taking certain blood pressure drugs with lisinopril increases your risk for low blood pressure, high blood potassium, and kidney problems including kidney failure. These drugs include:

  • angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB). Examples include:
    • candesartan (Atacand, Atacand HCT)
    • eprosartan (Teveten)
    • irbesartan (Avapro, Avalide)
    • losartan (Cozaar, Hyzaar)
    • olmesartan (Benicar, Benicar HCT, Tribenzor, Azor)
    • telmisartan (Micardis, Micardis HCT, Twynsta)
    • valsartan (Diovan, Diovan HCT, Exforge, Exforge HCT)
    • azilsartan (Edarbi, Edarbyclor)
  • angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Examples include:
    • benazepril (Lotensin, Lotrel, Lotensin HCT)
    • captopril
    • enalapril (Vasotec, Epaned)
    • fosinopril (Monopril)
    • lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril, Prinzide, Zestoretic)
    • moexipril (Uniretic)
    • perindopril (Aceon)
    • quinapril (Accupril, Accuretic)
    • ramipril (Altace)
    • trandolapril (Mavik, Tarka)
  • renin inhibitors:
    • aliskiren (Tekturna, Tekturna HCT)

Diabetes drugs

Taking diabetes drugs with lisinopril can lower your blood sugar level too much. These drugs include:

  • insulins
  • oral diabetes drugs

Water pills (diuretics)

Taking water pills with lisinopril can make your blood pressure too low. These drugs include:

  • hydrochlorothiazide
  • chlorthalidone
  • furosemide
  • bumetanide

Potassium supplements and potassium-sparing diuretics

Taking potassium supplements or potassium-sparing diuretics with lisinopril can increase potassium in your body. These drugs include:

  • spironolactone
  • amiloride
  • triamterene

Mood stabilizer drugs

Lisinopril can increase the effects of lithium. This means that you may have more side effects.

Pain drugs

Taking certain pain drugs with lisinopril can decrease your kidney function. These drugs include:

Neprilysin inhibitors

These drugs are used to treat heart failure. They should not be used with enalapril. Do not use enalapril within 36 hours of switching to or from a neprilysin inhibitor. Using these drugs together raises your risk of sudden swelling of your face, arms, legs, lips, tongue, throat, and intestines (angioedema).

An example of this drug class includes:

  • sacubitril

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs interact differently in each person, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible interactions. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always speak with your healthcare provider about possible interactions with all prescription drugs, vitamins, herbs and supplements, and over-the-counter drugs that you are taking.

Lisinopril warnings

Allergy warning

This drug can cause a severe allergic reaction. Symptoms include:

  • trouble breathing
  • swelling of your throat or tongue
  • hives

Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room if you develop these symptoms.

Don’t take this drug again if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to it. Taking it again could be fatal (cause death).

Alcohol interaction

The use of drinks that contain alcohol can increase the blood pressure-lowering effects of lisinopril. This may cause you to feel dizzy or faint. If you drink alcohol, talk to your doctor.

Warnings for people with certain health conditions

For people with kidney disease: If you have kidney disease or are on dialysis, you have a higher risk of getting certain serious side effects from this drug. Your doctor will monitor your kidney function and adjust your medication as needed. Your doctor should start you on a lower dose of this drug.

For people with diabetes: This drug can affect your blood sugar levels. Your doctor may need to change your dose of your diabetes medicines. Your doctor will tell you how often to test your blood sugar levels.

Warnings for other groups

For pregnant women: This drug is a category D pregnancy drug. That means two things:

  1. Research in humans has shown adverse effects to the fetus when the mother takes the drug.
  2. This drug should only be used during pregnancy in serious cases where it’s needed to treat a dangerous condition in the mother.

Talk to your doctor if you’re pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Ask your doctor to tell you about the specific harm that may be done to the fetus. This drug should be only used if the potential risk to the fetus is acceptable given the drug’s potential benefit.

For women who are breastfeeding: It isn’t known if this drug passes into breast milk. If it does, it may cause side effects in a child who is breastfed. Talk to your doctor if you breastfeed your baby. You may need to decide whether to stop breastfeeding or stop taking this medication.

For seniors: Older adults may process drugs more slowly. A normal adult dose may cause levels of this drug to be higher than normal in your body. If you’re a senior, you may need a lower dose or a different schedule.

For children: This medicine hasn’t been studied and shouldn’t be used in children younger than 6 years.

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How to take lisinopril

This dosage information is for lisinopril oral tablet. All possible dosages and forms may not be included here. Your doctor will tell you what dosage is right for you. Your dose, form, and how often you take it will depend on:

  • your age
  • the condition being treated
  • how severe your condition is
  • other medical conditions you have
  • how you react to the first dose

Forms and strengths

Generic: lisinopril

  • Form: Oral tablet
  • Strengths: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg

Brand: Prinivil

  • Form: Oral tablet
  • Strengths: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg

Brand: Zestril

  • Form: Oral tablet
  • Strengths: 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, 40 mg

Dosage for hypertension

Adult dosage (ages 18–64 years)

  • starting dose: 10 mg taken by mouth once per day
  • usual dose: 20–40 mg taken once per day
  • maximum dose: 80 mg taken once per day

Child dosage (ages 6–17 years)

  • starting dose: 0.07 mg/kg of body weight taken by mouth once per day
  • dose adjustments will be based on your blood pressure response.
  • maximum dose: 0.61 mg/kg, up to 40 mg, once per day

Child dosage (ages 0–5 years)

This medicine hasn’t been studied and shouldn’t be used in children younger than 6 years.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

There are no specific recommendations for senior dosing. Older adults may process drugs more slowly. A normal adult dose may cause levels of this drug to be higher than normal in your body. If you’re a senior, you may need a lower dose or a different schedule.

Dosage for heart failure

Adult dosage (ages 18–64 years)

  • starting dose: 5 mg taken by mouth once per day
  • maximum dose: 40 mg taken once per day

Child dosage (ages 0–17 years)

This medicine hasn’t been studied and shouldn’t be used in children younger than 18 years for heart failure.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

There are no specific recommendations for senior dosing. Older adults may process drugs more slowly. A normal adult dose may cause levels of this drug to be higher than normal in your body. If you’re a senior, you may need a lower dose or a different schedule.

Dosage for acute myocardial infarction (heart attack)

Adult dosage (ages 18–64 years)

  • starting dose: 5 mg taken by mouth within the first 24 hours of when symptoms of heart attack start. Your doctor will give you another 5 mg after another 24 hours.
  • usual dose: 10 mg given 48 hours after heart attack. Then 10 mg taken once per day for at least 6 weeks.

Child dosage (ages 6–17 years)

This medicine hasn’t been studied and shouldn’t be used in children younger than 18 years for improving survival after a heart attack.

Child dosage (ages 0–5 years)

This medicine hasn’t been studied and shouldn’t be used in children younger than 6 years.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

There are no specific recommendations for senior dosing. Older adults may process drugs more slowly. A normal adult dose may cause levels of this drug to be higher than normal in your body. If you’re a senior, you may need a lower dose or a different schedule.

Special considerations

  • Heart failure: If you have low blood sodium levels, your starting dose may be 2.5 mg taken once per day.
  • Improving survival after a heart attack: If you have low blood pressure, your starting dose may be 2.5 mg for the first 3 days after having a heart attack.

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs affect each person differently, we cannot guarantee that this list includes all possible dosages. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always to speak with your doctor or pharmacist about dosages that are right for you.

Take as directed

Lisinopril oral tablet is used for long-term treatment. This drug comes with serious risks if you don’t take it as prescribed.

If you don’t take it at all: If you don’t take it at all, your blood pressure will stay high. This will raise your risk for a heart attack and stroke.

If you stop taking it suddenly: If you stop taking this drug suddenly, your blood pressure may spike. This can cause anxiety, sweating, and a fast heart rate.

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If you don’t take it on schedule: You may not feel any different, but your blood pressure may not be controlled. This can put you at higher risk for heart attack and stroke.

What to do if you miss a dose: If you forget to take your dose, take it as soon as you remember. If it’s just a few hours until the time for your next dose, then wait and only take one dose at that time. Never try to catch up by taking two doses at once. This could result in toxic side effects.

If you take too much: If you take too much of this drug, you may have a drop in blood pressure. This may cause you to faint. If you think you’ve taken too much of the drug, act right away. Call your doctor or local Poison Control Center, or go to the nearest emergency room.

How to tell this drug is working: Your doctor will monitor your blood pressure and other symptoms of your condition to tell if this drug is working for you. You also may be able to tell this drug is working if you check your blood pressure and it’s lower.

Important considerations for taking this drug

Keep these considerations in mind if your doctor prescribes lisinopril oral tablet for you.

General

This drug should be taken around the same time every day.You can crush or cut the tablet.

Storage

  • Keep it from 59°F (20°C) to 86°F (25°C).
  • Keep your drugs away from areas where they could get wet, such as bathrooms. Store this drug away from moisture and damp locations.

Refills

A prescription for this medication is refillable. You should not need a new prescription for this medication to be refilled. Your doctor will write the number of refills authorized on your prescription.

Travel

When traveling with your medication:

  • Always carry it with you or in your carry-on bag.
  • Don’t worry about airport x-ray machines. They can’t hurt your medication.
  • You may need to show airport security staff the pharmacy prescription label for your medication. Always carry the original prescription-labeled box with you.
  • Don’t leave this medicine in the car, especially when the temperature is hot or freezing.

Self-management

Your doctor may ask you to check your blood pressure at home. To do this, you’ll need to purchase a home blood pressure monitor. These are available at most pharmacies. You should keep a log with the date, time of day, and your blood pressure readings. Bring this diary with you to your doctor appointments.

Clinical monitoring

Before starting and during your treatment with this drug, your doctor may check the following to tell if this drug is working or is safe for you:

  • blood pressure
  • liver function
  • kidney function
  • blood potassium

Hidden costs

You may need to buy a blood pressure monitor to check your blood pressure at home.

Are there any alternatives?

There are other drugs available to treat your condition. Some may be better suited for you than others. Talk to your doctor about other options that may work for you.

Disclaimer: Healthline has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up-to-date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or other healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.

Source Article from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322424.php

Medical News Today: What is pregabalin?

Highlights for pregabalin

  1. Pregabalin oral capsule is only available as a brand-name drug. It isn’t available as a generic drug. Brand name: Lyrica.
  2. Pregabalin comes as a capsule, a solution, and an extended-release tablet. All forms are taken by mouth.
  3. Pregabalin oral capsule is used to treat neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. It’s also used to treat partial onset seizures when taken with other seizure drugs.


Important warnings

  • Hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction warning: This drug can cause serious allergic reactions. These include trouble breathing, shortness of breath, and rash, hives, and blisters on your skin. If you have any of these symptoms, stop taking this drug and seek medical help right away.
  • Suicidal thinking and behavior warning: This drug can increase your risk of having suicidal thoughts and behavior. Talk to your doctor right away if you have any unusual changes in your mood or behavior, new or worsening depression, or thoughts of harming yourself.
  • Dizziness and drowsiness warning: This drug can cause dizziness, drowsiness, and blurry vision. It may affect your ability to think, see, or move. You shouldn’t drive, use machinery, or do other tasks that require alertness until you know how this drug affects you.
  • Misuse warning: Use of this drug can lead to misuse. Your risk may be greater if you have a history of drug misuse.

What is pregabalin?

Pregabalin is a prescription drug. It comes in three forms: a capsule, a solution, and an extended-release tablet. All forms are taken by mouth.

Pregabalin oral capsule is available as the brand-name drug Lyrica. It isn’t available as a generic drug.

Pregabalin oral capsule may be used as part of a combination therapy. This means you may need to take it with other medications.

Pregabalin is a controlled substance. Your doctor will closely monitor your use of this drug.

Why it’s used

Pregabalin oral capsule is used to treat:

How it works

Pregabalin belongs to a class of drugs called anticonvulsants. A class of drugs is a group of medications that work in a similar way. These drugs are often used to treat similar conditions.

It isn’t known exactly how pregabalin works. It’s believed to work by calming the damaged or overactive nerves in your body that may cause pain or seizures.


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Pregabalin side effects

Pregabalin oral capsule can cause dizziness, sleepiness, and blurry vision. It may affect your ability to think, see, or move. You shouldn’t drive, use machinery, or do other tasks that require alertness until you know how this drug affects you.

Pregabalin can also cause other side effects.

More common side effects

The more common side effects of pregabalin can include:

  • dizziness
  • sleepiness
  • trouble concentrating
  • blurry vision
  • dry mouth
  • weight gain
  • swelling of your hands or feet

If these effects are mild, they may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. If they’re more severe or don’t go away, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Serious side effects

Call your doctor right away if you have serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency. Serious side effects and their symptoms can include the following:

  • Serious allergic reactions. These reactions may be life-threatening. Symptoms can include:
    • swelling of your face, mouth, lips, gums, tongue, throat, or neck
    • trouble breathing
    • rash, hives (raised bumps), or blisters
  • Suicidal thoughts or actions. Symptoms can include:
    • thoughts of suicide or dying
    • attempts to commit suicide
    • new or worsened depression or anxiety
    • feeling agitated or restless
    • panic attacks
    • trouble sleeping
    • new or worsened irritability
    • acting aggressive, angry, or violent
    • acting on dangerous impulses
    • mania (an extreme increase in activity and talking)
    • other unusual changes in behavior or mood
  • Heart problems. Symptoms can include:
    • swelling of your hands, legs, or feet
    • chest pain
  • Dizziness and sleepiness

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs affect each person differently, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible side effects. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always discuss possible side effects with a healthcare provider who knows your medical history.

Pregabalin may interact with other medications

Pregabalin oral capsule can interact with other medications, vitamins, or herbs you may be taking. An interaction is when a substance changes the way a drug works. This can be harmful or prevent the drug from working well.

To help avoid interactions, your doctor should manage all of your medications carefully. Be sure to tell your doctor about all medications, vitamins, or herbs you’re taking. To find out how this drug might interact with something else you’re taking, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Examples of drugs that can cause interactions with pregabalin are listed below.

Interactions that cause increased side effects

Taking pregabalin with certain medications may cause more side effects. These drugs include:

  • Diabetes drugs, such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. Taking these drugs with pregabalin may cause weight gain or swelling of your hands or feet. If you have heart problems, taking these drugs together can increase your risk of heart failure.
  • Narcotic pain drugs, such as oxycodone. Taking these drugs with pregabalin may cause dizziness and sleepiness.
  • Tranquilizers (drugs that make you sleepy) or drugs for anxiety, such as lorazepam. Taking these drugs with pregabalin may cause dizziness and sleepiness.
  • Blood pressure drugs, such as captopril, enalapril, or lisinopril. Taking these drugs with pregabalin may cause swelling and hives.

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs interact differently in each person, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible interactions. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always speak with your healthcare provider about possible interactions with all prescription drugs, vitamins, herbs and supplements, and over-the-counter drugs that you are taking.


Pregabalin warnings

This drug comes with several warnings.

Allergy warning

This drug can cause a severe allergic reaction. Symptoms can include:

  • trouble breathing
  • swelling of your face, mouth, lips, gums, neck, throat, or tongue
  • rash, hives (raised bumps), or blisters

If you develop these symptoms, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room.

Don’t take this drug again if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to it. Taking it again could be fatal (cause death).

Alcohol interaction warning

The use of drinks that contain alcohol can increase the risk of drowsiness and dizziness from pregabalin. You shouldn’t drink alcohol while taking this drug. If you drink alcohol, talk to your doctor.

Warnings for people with certain health conditions

For people with kidney problems: If you have kidney problems or a history of kidney disease, you may not be able to clear this drug from your body well. This may increase the levels of this drug and cause more side effects. Your doctor may give you a lower dosage to help avoid side effects.

For people with heart problems: Ask your doctor whether this drug is safe for you if you have heart problems, such as moderate to severe heart failure. This drug can make your condition worse. Symptoms of worsening heart problems can include swelling in your arms, legs, or feet, weight gain, and fluid retention (swelling) in your body.

For people with depression or mental health issues: If you have depression or other mental health or behavioral problems, this drug may increase your risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors. You and your family should watch for new or worsened depression, unusual changes in your mood or behavior, or thoughts of harming yourself.

For people with a history of drug or alcohol misuse: Let your doctor know if you have misused prescription or street drugs or alcohol in the past. Pregabalin is a controlled substance and its use can lead to misuse.

Warnings for other groups

For pregnant women: Talk to your doctor if you’re pregnant or planning to become pregnant. This drug should only be used if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk. Animal studies have shown that high doses of pregabalin increased the risk of negative effects to the fetus.

If you become pregnant while taking this drug, talk to your healthcare provider about registering with the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry. The purpose of this registry is to collect information about the safety of antiepileptic drugs used during pregnancy.

For women who are breastfeeding: Pregabalin passes into breast milk in small amounts. Therefore, it may cause side effects in a child who is breastfed.

Talk to your doctor if you breastfeed your child. You may need to decide whether to stop breastfeeding or stop taking this medication.

For men with plans to father a child: Animal studies have shown that this drug caused sperm to change and made male animals less fertile. Also, birth defects were seen in the babies of male animals who were treated with this drug. It isn’t known if these problems can happen in people who take this drug.

For seniors: Your kidneys may not work as well as they used to. This can cause your body to process drugs more slowly. As a result, a higher amount of a drug stays in your body for a longer time. This raises your risk of side effects.

For children: This drug hasn’t been studied in children. It shouldn’t be used in children younger than 18 years.

How to take pregabalin

All possible dosages and drug forms may not be included here. Your dosage, drug form, and how often you take the drug will depend on:

  • your age
  • the condition being treated
  • how severe your condition is
  • other medical conditions you have
  • how you react to the first dose

Drug forms and strengths

Brand: Lyrica

  • Form: oral capsule
  • Strengths: 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, 200 mg, 225 mg, 300 mg

Dosage for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (nerve pain due to diabetes)

Adult dosage (ages 18–64 years)

  • Typical starting dosage: 50 mg taken three times per day.
  • Dosage increases: Your doctor will adjust your dosage based on your response to this drug.
  • Maximum dosage: 100 mg taken three times per day (for a total of 300 mg per day).

Child dosage (ages 0–17 years)

This drug hasn’t been studied in children. It shouldn’t be used in children younger than 18 years.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Your kidneys may not work as well as they used to. This can cause your body to process drugs more slowly. As a result, a higher amount of a drug stays in your body for a longer time. This raises your risk of side effects.

Your doctor may start you on a lower dosage or a different dosing schedule. This can help keep levels of this drug from building up too much in your body.

Dosage for shingles (nerve pain due to herpes zoster)

Adult dosage (ages 18–64 years)

  • Typical starting dosage: 75–150 mg taken two times per day, or 50–100 mg taken three times per day (for a total of 150–300 mg per day).
  • Dosage increases: Your doctor will adjust your dosage based on your response to this drug.
  • Maximum dosage: 300 mg taken two times per day, or 200 mg taken three times per day (for a total of 600 mg per day).

Child dosage (ages 0–17 years)

This drug hasn’t been studied in children. It shouldn’t be used in children younger than 18 years.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Your kidneys may not work as well as they used to. This can cause your body to process drugs more slowly. As a result, a higher amount of a drug stays in your body for a longer time. This raises your risk of side effects.

Your doctor may start you on a lower dosage or a different dosing schedule. This can help keep levels of this drug from building up too much in your body.

Dosage for partial onset seizures

Adult dosage (ages 18–64 years)

  • Typical starting dosage: 75 mg taken two times per day, or 50 mg taken three times per day (for a total of 150 mg per day).
  • Dosage increases: Your doctor will adjust your dosage based on your response to this drug.
  • Maximum dosage: 600 mg per day.

Child dosage (ages 4–17 years)

For children weighing 11 kg (24 lbs) to less than 30 kg (66 lbs)

  • Typical starting dosage: 3.5 mg/kg/day, given in two or three divided doses throughout the day.
  • Maximum dosage: 14 mg/kg/day, given in two or three divided doses throughout the day.

For children weighing 30 kg (66 lbs) or more

  • Typical starting dosage: 2.5 mg/kg/day, given in two or three divided doses throughout the day.
  • Maximum dosage: 10 mg/kg/day, given in two or three divided doses throughout the day, not to exceed 600 mg per day.

Child dosage (ages 0–3 years)

This drug hasn’t been studied in children in this age range. It shouldn’t be used in children younger than 4 years of age.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Your kidneys may not work as well as they used to. This can cause your body to process drugs more slowly. As a result, a higher amount of a drug stays in your body for a longer time. This raises your risk of side effects.

Your doctor may start you on a lower dosage or a different dosing schedule. This can help keep levels of this drug from building up too much in your body.

Dosage for fibromyalgia

Adult dosage (ages 18–64 years)

  • Typical starting dosage: 75 mg taken two times per day.
  • Dosage increases: Your doctor will adjust your dosage based on your response to this drug.
  • Maximum dosage: 450 mg per day.

Child dosage (ages 0–17 years)

This drug hasn’t been studied in children. It shouldn’t be used in children younger than 18 years.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Your kidneys may not work as well as they used to. This can cause your body to process drugs more slowly. As a result, a higher amount of a drug stays in your body for a longer time. This raises your risk of side effects.

Your doctor may start you on a lower dosage or a different dosing schedule. This can help keep levels of this drug from building up too much in your body.

Dosage for nerve pain due to spinal cord injury

Adult dosage (ages 18–64 years)

Typical starting dosage: 75 mg taken two times per day.

Dosage increases: Your doctor will adjust your dosage based on your response to this drug.

Maximum dosage: 300 mg taken two times per day (for a total of 600 mg per day).

Child dosage (ages 0–17 years)

This drug hasn’t been studied in children. It shouldn’t be used in children younger than 18 years.

Senior dosage (ages 65 years and older)

Your kidneys may not work as well as they used to. This can cause your body to process drugs more slowly. As a result, a higher amount of a drug stays in your body for a longer time. This raises your risk of side effects.

Your doctor may start you on a lower dosage or a different dosing schedule. This can help keep levels of this drug from building up too much in your body.

Special dosage considerations

For people with kidney problems: If you have kidney problems, your doctor will prescribe a lower dosage or change how often you receive this drug. Your dosage will be based on your kidney function and the total dosage that’s recommended for your specific condition.

Dosage warnings

Pregabalin has been studied at doses up to 600 mg per day. However, it hasn’t been shown to be effective in some people at these higher doses. Also, doses higher than 300 mg per day cause more side effects in some people.

Your doctor may have you take up to 600 mg per day. Your dosage depends on how well your pain is controlled and how well you can tolerate this drug without having side effects.

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs affect each person differently, we cannot guarantee that this list includes all possible dosages. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always speak with your doctor or pharmacist about dosages that are right for you.


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Take as directed

Pregabalin oral capsule is used for long-term treatment. It comes with serious risks if you don’t take it as prescribed.

If you stop taking the drug suddenly or don’t take it at all: Your pain or seizures won’t go away or may get worse.

If you miss doses or don’t take the drug on schedule: Your medication may not work as well or may stop working completely. For this drug to work well, a certain amount needs to be in your body at all times.

If you take too much: You could have dangerous levels of the drug in your body. Symptoms may include:

  • dizziness
  • drowsiness
  • loss of control of body movements
  • tremors (constant shaking)
  • amnesia (forgetfulness or loss of memory)
  • trouble speaking
  • nervousness
  • twitching
  • headache

If you think you’ve taken too much of this drug, call your doctor or local poison control center. If your symptoms are severe, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room right away.

What to do if you miss a dose: Take your dose as soon as you remember. But if you remember just a few hours before your next scheduled dose, take only one dose. Never try to catch up by taking two doses at once. This could result in dangerous side effects.

How to tell if the drug is working: For peripheral neuropathy, shingles, and nerve pain caused by a spinal cord injury: You should feel less burning, tingling, or numbing pain.

For fibromyalgia: You should feel less pain all over your body.

For seizures: Your seizures should be better controlled.

Important considerations for taking pregabalin

Keep these considerations in mind if your doctor prescribes pregabalin for you.

General

  • You can take this drug with or without food.
  • Take this drug at the time(s) recommended by your doctor.

Storage

  • Store this drug at room temperature. Keep it between 59°F and 86°F (15°C and 30°C).
  • Keep this drug away from light.
  • Don’t store this medication in moist or damp areas, such as bathrooms.

Refills

A prescription for this medication is refillable. You should not need a new prescription for this medication to be refilled. Your doctor will write the number of refills authorized on your prescription.

Travel

When traveling with your medication:

  • Always carry your medication with you. When flying, never put it into a checked bag. Keep it in your carry-on bag.
  • Don’t worry about airport X-ray machines. They can’t harm your medication.
  • You may need to show airport staff the pharmacy label for your medication. Always carry the original prescription-labeled container with you.
  • Don’t put this medication in your car’s glove compartment or leave it in the car. Be sure to avoid doing this when the weather is very hot or very cold.

Clinical monitoring

You and your doctor should monitor certain health issues. This can help make sure you stay safe while you take this drug. These issues include your:

  • Kidney function: Your doctor may do blood tests to check how well your kidneys are working. If your kidneys aren’t working well, your doctor may lower your dosage of this drug.
  • Mental and behavioral health: You and your doctor should watch for any unusual changes in your behavior and mood. This drug can cause new mental health and behavior problems. It can also worsen problems you already have.

Availability

Not every pharmacy stocks this drug. When filling your prescription, be sure to call ahead to make sure your pharmacy carries it.

Prior authorization

Many insurance companies require a prior authorization for this drug. This means your doctor will need to get approval from your insurance company before your insurance company will pay for the prescription.

Are there any alternatives?

There are other drugs available to treat your condition. Some may be better suited for you than others. Talk to your doctor about other drug options that may work for you.

Disclaimer: Healthline has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up-to-date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or other healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.

Source Article from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322429.php

Medical News Today: What is venlafaxine?

Highlights for venlafaxine

  1. Venlafaxine oral tablet is only available as a generic drug. It comes in both an immediate-release and an extended-release form.
  2. Venlafaxine also comes as an extended-release oral capsule.
  3. Venlafaxine oral tablet is used to treat depression (immediate-release tablet and extended-release tablet). It’s also used to treat social anxiety disorder (extended-release tablet only).


Important warnings

FDA warning: Suicidal behavior warning

  • This drug has a black box warning. This is the most serious warning from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). A black box warning alerts doctors and patients about drug effects that may be dangerous.
  • Venlafaxine may increase suicidal thoughts or actions in some children and young adults. This usually happens within the first few months of treatment or during dosage changes. Call your doctor right away if you notice new or sudden changes in your or your child’s mood, behavior, thoughts, or feelings, especially if they are severe.

Other warnings

  • Incorrect drug screening results warning: This drug may interfere with the results of urine tests for some illegal drugs, including phencyclidine (PCP) and amphetamine. It may make these test results positive even when you haven’t used the illegal drugs. This effect may last for several days after you stop taking venlafaxine.
  • High blood pressure warning: Venlafaxine may increase your blood pressure. Your doctor will likely make sure your blood pressure is normal before you start taking venlafaxine. They will check your blood pressure regularly during your treatment.

What is venlafaxine?

Venlafaxine is a prescription drug. It comes as an oral tablet and an oral capsule.

Venlafaxine oral tablet comes in immediate-release and extended-release forms. Both forms are only available as generic drugs. Generic drugs usually cost less than brand-name drugs.

Why it’s used

Venlafaxine oral tablet is used to treat depression (immediate-release tablet and extended-release tablet). It’s also used to treat social anxiety disorder (extended-release tablet only).

Venlafaxine may be used as part of a combination therapy. This means you may need to take it with other medications to treat your condition.

How it works

Venlafaxine belongs to a class of antidepressant drugs called serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). A class of drugs is a group of medications that work in a similar way. These drugs are often used to treat similar conditions.

SNRIs work by increasing the levels of substances called serotonin and norepinephrine in your brain. Having more serotonin and norepinephrine in your brain can improve your symptoms of depression and anxiety.


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Venlafaxine side effects

Venlafaxine oral tablet may cause drowsiness. It may also affect your ability to make decisions, think clearly, or react quickly. You should not drive, use heavy machinery, or do things that require you to be alert until you know you can function normally. Venlafaxine may also cause other side effects.

More common side effects

The more common side effects of venlafaxine can include:

  • unusual dreams
  • sexual problems, such as:
    • decreased interest in sex
    • impotence (not being able to get or keep an erection)
    • trouble having an orgasm
  • loss of appetite
  • constipation
  • nausea or vomiting
  • dry mouth
  • tiredness
  • trouble sleeping or change in sleep habits
  • yawning
  • tremor or shaking
  • dizziness
  • blurry vision
  • sweating
  • feeling anxious, nervous, or jittery
  • headache
  • increased heart rate

If these effects are mild, they may go away within a few days or a couple of weeks. If they’re more severe or don’t go away, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Serious side effects

Call your doctor right away if you have serious side effects. Call 911 if your symptoms feel life-threatening or if you think you’re having a medical emergency. Serious side effects and their symptoms can include the following:

  • Attempting suicide
  • Acting on dangerous impulses
  • Aggressive or violent behavior
  • Thoughts about suicide or dying
  • New or worsened depression
  • New or worsened anxiety or panic attacks
  • Agitation, restlessness, anger, or irritability
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Serotonin syndrome. Symptoms can include:
    • agitation
    • hallucinations (seeing or hearing something that isn’t there)
    • coma
    • changes in your mental status
    • coordination problems
    • muscle twitching or overactive reflexes
    • fast heart rate
    • high or low blood pressure
    • sweating
    • fever
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • muscle stiffness
  • High blood pressure. Symptoms can include:
    • headache
    • chest pain
  • Mania. Symptoms can include:
    • greatly increased energy
    • severe trouble sleeping
    • racing thoughts
    • reckless behavior
    • unusually grand ideas
    • excessive happiness or irritability
    • talking more or faster than usual
  • Seizures
  • Eye problems. Symptoms can include:
    • eye pain
    • vision changes
    • enlarged pupils
    • swelling or redness in or around your eyes
  • Low sodium levels. Symptoms can include:
    • headache
    • weakness
    • feeling unsteady
    • confusion
    • problems concentrating
    • thinking or memory problems
  • Bruising easily
  • Frequent nosebleeds
  • Frequent bleeding from your gums while brushing your teeth or flossing
  • Dark, tar-like stool
  • Bleeding from wounds that’s hard to stop
  • Lung disease or pneumonia. Symptoms can include:
    • shortness of breath that gets worse
    • cough
    • chest discomfort

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs affect each person differently, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible side effects. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always discuss possible side effects with a healthcare provider who knows your medical history.

Venlafaxine may interact with other medications

Venlafaxine oral tablet can interact with other medications, vitamins, or herbs you may be taking. An interaction is when a substance changes the way a drug works. This can be harmful or prevent the drug from working well.

To help avoid interactions, your doctor should manage all of your medications carefully. Be sure to tell your doctor about all medications, vitamins, or herbs you’re taking. To find out how this drug might interact with something else you’re taking, talk to your doctor or pharmacist.

Examples of drugs that can cause interactions with venlafaxine are listed below.

Drugs you should not use with venlafaxine

Do not take these drugs with venlafaxine. When used with venlafaxine, these drugs can cause dangerous effects in your body. Examples of these drugs include:

  • Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), including linezolid and methylene blue. Unless directed by your doctor, do not start venlafaxine within 2 weeks of stopping an MAOI and do not take an MAOI within 7 days of stopping venlafaxine. Taking venlafaxine and an MAOI too close together in time may cause serious or life-threatening side effects. These side effects can include high fever, uncontrolled muscle spasms, and stiff muscles. Other side effects can include sudden changes in your heart rate or blood pressure, confusion, and passing out.
  • Drugs for weight loss, such as phentermine. Using venlafaxine with drugs such as phentermine may lead to excessive weight loss, serotonin syndrome, and heart problems such as rapid heart rate and high blood pressure.

Interactions that increase your risk of side effects

Taking venlafaxine with certain medications raises your risk of side effects. Examples of these drugs include:

  • Cimetidine. Taking this drug with venlafaxine raises your risk of high blood pressure or liver disease. These risks are greater if you are a senior.
  • Haloperidol. Taking this drug with venlafaxine raises your risk of QT prolongation. This is a heart condition with symptoms such as dizziness and an irregular heart rhythm.
  • Warfarin. Taking this drug with venlafaxine raises your risk of bleeding. Your doctor will monitor you closely, especially when starting or stopping your venlafaxine therapy. Tell your doctor right away if you notice any abnormal bleeding or bruising.
  • Anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketoprofen. Taking any of these drugs with venlafaxine raises your risk of bleeding. Your doctor will monitor you closely, especially when starting or stopping your venlafaxine therapy. Tell your doctor right away if you notice any abnormal bleeding or bruising.
  • Drugs such as ritonavir, clarithromycin, or ketoconazole. Drugs such as ritonavir, clarithromycin, or ketoconazole can slow the breakdown of drugs in your body. If you take any of these drugs with venlafaxine, the amount of venlafaxine may build up in your body. This would increase your risk of side effects.
  • Drugs that cause drowsiness, such as zolpidem, lorazepam, and diphenhydramine. Taking any of these drugs with venlafaxine may make the sleepiness from venlafaxine even worse.
  • Other drugs that can increase serotonin levels, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, duloxetine, lithium, and tramadol. Venlafaxine increases your levels of serotonin. Taking it with any of these drugs may increase your serotonin levels even more. If your serotonin levels are too high, a life-threatening condition called serotonin syndrome can occur. Your doctor will monitor you closely when starting or increasing your dosage of either drug.
  • Certain drugs for migraine, called triptans, such as sumatriptan, rizatriptan, and zolmitriptan. Venlafaxine increases your levels of serotonin. Taking it with any of these drugs may increase your serotonin levels even more. If your serotonin levels are too high, a life-threatening condition called serotonin syndrome can occur. Your doctor will monitor you closely when starting or increasing your dosage of either drug.

Interactions that can make your drugs less effective

When certain drugs are used with venlafaxine, they may not work as well. This is because the amount of these drugs in your body may be decreased. Examples of these drugs include:

  • Metoprolol. Metoprolol may be less effective when you take it with venlafaxine. This may cause your blood pressure to rise. Talk to your doctor before taking these drugs together.

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs interact differently in each person, we cannot guarantee that this information includes all possible interactions. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always speak with your healthcare provider about possible interactions with all prescription drugs, vitamins, herbs and supplements, and over-the-counter drugs that you are taking.


Venlafaxine warnings

Venlafaxine oral tablet comes with several warnings.

Allergy warning

Venlafaxine can cause a severe allergic reaction. Symptoms can include:

  • trouble breathing
  • swelling of your face, tongue, eyes, or mouth
  • rash, hives, or blisters, alone or with joint paint or fever

If you have an allergic reaction, call your doctor or local poison control center right away. If your symptoms are severe, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room.

Don’t take this drug again if you’ve ever had an allergic reaction to it. Taking it again could be fatal (cause death).

Alcohol interaction warning

Do not drink alcohol with venlafaxine. Drinking alcohol raises your risk of sleepiness from venlafaxine. This may affect your ability to make decisions, think clearly, and react quickly. If you drink alcohol, talk to your doctor.

Warnings for people with certain health conditions

For people with liver disease: If you have a history of liver disease, your liver may not process this drug as quickly as it should. This could lead to a buildup of this drug in your body. Your doctor may start you on a reduced dosage. If they increase your dosage later, they will monitor you closely.

For people with kidney disease: If you have kidney disease or a history of kidney disease, you may not be able to clear this drug from your body well. This may increase the levels of venlafaxine in your body. This can cause more side effects. Your doctor may start you on a low dosage and monitor you closely if they increase your dosage.

For people with heart problems: Venlafaxine can increase your heart rate, especially if you’re taking doses greater than 200 mg per day. If you have heart failure or if you’ve recently had a heart attack, your heart may not be able to tolerate this side effect.

For people with hyperthyroidism: Hyperthyroidism can increase your heart rate. Venlafaxine can also increase your heart rate. If you have hyperthyroidism and take venlafaxine, your heart rate may increase to a dangerous level. You are especially at risk if you take venlafaxine doses greater than 200 mg per day.

For people with a history of seizures: Venlafaxine raises your risk of seizures. If you have a seizure, stop taking venlafaxine and call your doctor right away.

For people with increased eye pressure (glaucoma): Venlafaxine can widen your pupils and block the flow of fluid in your eye. These effects can increase the pressure in your eyes. People with a history of increased eye pressure or glaucoma should have their eye pressure checked regularly while taking venlafaxine. Do not take venlafaxine if you have uncontrolled angle-closure glaucoma.

Warnings for other groups

For pregnant women: Venlafaxine is a category C pregnancy drug. That means two things:

  1. Research in animals has shown adverse effects to the fetus when the mother takes the drug.
  2. There haven’t been enough studies done in humans to be certain how the drug might affect the fetus.

Talk to your doctor if you’re pregnant or plan to become pregnant. This drug should only be used if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Call your doctor right away if you become pregnant while taking this drug.

For women who are breastfeeding: Venlafaxine may pass into breast milk and cause side effects in a child who is breastfed. Talk to your doctor about breastfeeding your child. You may need to decide whether to stop breastfeeding or stop taking this medication.

For seniors: The kidneys of older adults may not work as well as they used to. This can cause your body to process drugs more slowly. As a result, more of a drug stays in your body for a longer time. This raises your risk of side effects. Older adults may be at higher risk than younger people for low sodium levels in their blood when taking venlafaxine.

For children: This drug should not be used in people younger than 18 years of age.

How to take venlafaxine

All possible dosages and drug forms may not be included here. Your dosage, drug form, and how often you take the drug will depend on:

  • your age
  • the condition being treated
  • how severe your condition is
  • other medical conditions you have
  • how you react to the first dose

Forms and strengths

Generic: Venlafaxine

  • Form: immediate-release oral tablet
  • Strengths: 25 mg, 37.5 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, 100 mg
  • Form: extended-release oral tablet
  • Strengths: 37.5 mg, 75 mg, 150 mg, 225 mg

Dosage for depression

Adult dosage (ages 18 years and older)

  • Immediate-release oral tablets:
    • Typical starting dosage: 75 mg total per day, taken in two or three divided doses
    • Dosage increases: If needed, your doctor may increase your dosage to 150 mg per day.
    • Typical maximum dosage: 225 mg per day. If you have more severe depression, your doctor may prescribe a dosage as high as 375 mg per day, taken in three divided doses.
  • Extended-release oral tablets:
    • Typical starting dosage: 75 mg per day, taken in a single dose in the morning or evening. Some patients should start at a lower dosage of 37.5 mg per day for 4–7 days.
    • Dosage increases: If needed, your doctor may increase your dosage. They may increase it every 4 days by 75 mg until you reach 225 mg per day.
    • Typical maximum dosage: 225 mg per day.

Child dosage (ages 0–17 years)

This medication should not be used in people younger than 18 years of age.

Dosage for social anxiety disorder

Adult dosage (ages 18 years and older)

  • Extended-release oral tablets:

    • Typical dosage: 75 mg per day, given in a single dose in the morning or evening.
    • Maximum dosage: 75 mg per day.

Child dosage (ages 0–17 years)

This medication should not be used in people younger than 18 years of age.

Special dosage considerations

People with liver problems: People with mild to moderate liver problems should take about half of the typical dose. People with severe liver disease or cirrhosis may need an even lower dosage. Your doctor can tell you more.

People with kidney problems: People with mild to moderate kidney problems should take 75% of the typical dosage. People who are on dialysis should take half of the typical dosage. Your doctor can tell you more.

Disclaimer: Our goal is to provide you with the most relevant and current information. However, because drugs affect each person differently, we cannot guarantee that this list includes all possible dosages. This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Always to speak with your doctor or pharmacist about dosages that are right for you.


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Take as directed

Venlafaxine oral tablet is used for long-term treatment. It comes with serious risks if you don’t take it as prescribed.

If you stop taking the drug suddenly or don’t take it at all: Your depression or anxiety may not get better and may get worse. Do not stop venlafaxine without talking to your doctor. Stopping venlafaxine too quickly can cause serious symptoms such as:

  • anxiety
  • irritability
  • tiredness
  • restlessness
  • trouble sleeping
  • headache
  • sweating
  • dizziness
  • tingling or “pins and needles” feeling
  • shaking
  • confusion
  • nightmares
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea

If this happens, your doctor may have you start taking venlafaxine again and decrease your dosage slowly.

If you miss doses or don’t take the drug on schedule: Your medication may not work as well or may stop working completely. For this drug to work well, a certain amount needs to be in your body at all times.

If you take too much: You could have dangerous levels of the drug in your body. This can lead to death. Symptoms of an overdose of this drug can include:

  • fast heart rate
  • unusual sleepiness
  • enlarged pupils
  • seizure
  • vomiting
  • heart rhythm changes
  • low blood pressure
  • muscle aches or pains
  • dizziness

If you think you’ve taken too much of this drug, call your doctor or seek guidance from the American Association of Poison Control Centers at 800-222-1222 or through their online tool. But if your symptoms are severe, call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room right away.

What to do if you miss a dose: Take your dose as soon as you remember. If you remember just a few hours before your next scheduled dose, take only one dose. Never try to catch up by taking two doses at once. This could result in dangerous side effects.

How to tell if the drug is working: The symptoms of your depression or anxiety should be less severe or happen less often.

Important considerations for taking venlafaxine

Keep these considerations in mind if your doctor prescribes venlafaxine oral tablet for you.

General

  • Take venlafaxine with food.
  • You can cut or crush the immediate-release tablet, but do not cut or crush the extended-release tablet.

Storage

  • Store the immediate-release oral tablet at room temperature between 68°F and 77°F (20°C and 25°C).
  • Store the extended-release oral tablet at temperatures between 59°F and 86°F (15°C and 30°C).
  • Keep this drug away from light.
  • Don’t store this medication in moist or damp areas, such as bathrooms.

Refills

A prescription for this medication is refillable. You should not need a new prescription for this medication to be refilled. Your doctor will write the number of refills authorized on your prescription.

Travel

When traveling with your medication:

  • Always carry your medication with you. When flying, never put it into a checked bag. Keep it in your carry-on bag.
  • Don’t worry about airport X-ray machines. They can’t hurt your medication.
  • You may need to show airport staff the pharmacy label for your medication. Always carry the original prescription-labeled container with you.
  • Don’t put this medication in your car’s glove compartment or leave it in the car. Be sure to avoid doing this when the weather is very hot or very cold.

Availability

Not every pharmacy stocks this drug. When filling your prescription, be sure to call ahead to make sure your pharmacy carries it.

Insurance

Many insurance companies require a prior authorization for this drug. This means your doctor may need to get approval from your insurance company before your insurance company will pay for the prescription.

Are there any alternatives?

There are other drugs available to treat your condition. Some may be better suited for you than others. Talk to your doctor about other drug options that may work for you.

Disclaimer: Healthline has made every effort to make certain that all information is factually correct, comprehensive, and up-to-date. However, this article should not be used as a substitute for the knowledge and expertise of a licensed healthcare professional. You should always consult your doctor or other healthcare professional before taking any medication. The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.

Source Article from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322431.php

Medical News Today: What to know about colon polyps

A colon polyp is a small growth of tissue that projects from the lining of a section of the large intestine known as the colon.

Polyps are common and increasingly so as people age. Colorectal polyps, which are polyps in the colon or rectum, are estimated to occur in at least 30 percent of adults who are 50 years old or more in the United States.

Colorectal polyps also occur in children with an estimated 6 percent affected, rising to 12 percent in those who experience intestinal bleeding.

Most colon or bowel polyps are harmless, but some can develop into cancer. If they do, it can take many years for them to turn cancerous.

In this article, we take a close look at colon polyps, including their causes, treatments, and how to prevent them from occurring.

Types of colon polyps

Colon polyp
A colon polyp is a growth that develops in the large intestine.

Different types of polyps carry different risk factors. Furthermore, the size of the polyp is related to its potential severity.

A 2014 review concluded that polyps of 5 millimeters (mm) or less had little risk of becoming cancerous while those between 1.5 and 3.5 centimeters (cm) had a malignancy potential of 19 to 43 percent.

The most common types of polyps are hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps:

Hyperplastic polyps

Hyperplastic polyps, or inflammatory polyps, are usually harmless and not a cause for concern with a low malignancy potential. These polyps will rarely become cancerous.

Adenomas

Adenomas, or adenomatous polyps, are not cancerous but they may become cancerous in the future. Larger adenomas are more likely to become cancerous. Doctors usually recommend removing adenomas.

Malignant polyps

Malignant polyps are polyps that contain cancerous cells. The best treatment for these polyps will depend on the severity of the cancer and a person’s overall health.


Symptoms

People with colon polyps often have no signs or symptoms of the condition.

Doctors usually find these polyps during routine tests or tests for another disorder. A doctor may recommend that older adults and people with risk factors for colon polyps have regular screening. When doctors detect polyps early, there is a better chance that they can completely remove the growths without complications.

When colon polyps do cause symptoms, people may notice the following:

  • Bleeding from the rectum. This is the most common symptom of polyps, although it can also be a sign of other conditions, such as hemorrhoids or minor tears in the anus.
  • Abdominal pain. Large polyps that partially block the bowel can cause abdominal cramps and pain.
  • A change in the color of stools. Minor polyp bleeding can cause red stripes in the stool, and heavier bleeding can make the stool appear black. However, other factors can also change the color of the stool, such as foods, medicines, and supplements.
  • Iron deficiency anemia. If a person’s polyps bleed slowly over time, they may develop an iron deficiency. Anemia can cause weakness, pale skin, shortness of breath, light-headedness or fainting.
  • A change in bowel habits that lasts longer than a week, including constipation or diarrhea.


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Causes

Red meats in packaging.
Eating a lot of red meat may increase the risk of colon polyps.

People are either born with colon polyps or develop them during their lifetimes.

Doctors do not yet know the exact causes of colon polyps, but their appearance may be linked to the following lifestyle factors:

  • a high-fat diet
  • eating lots of red meat
  • not eating enough fiber
  • smoking cigarettes
  • obesity

In some people, genetic factors cause the cells of the colon to multiply more than they should. When this happens in the colon, people get colon polyps. When it occurs in the rectum, people get colorectal polyps.

People are more likely to develop colon polyps if they have the following inherited conditions:

  • familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)
  • Gardner syndrome
  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

People with these conditions have an increased risk of developing cancer in several organs, including the small intestine and colon.


Risk factors

Certain risk factors make a person more likely to develop colon polyps. These include:

  • obesity
  • lack of exercise
  • smoking cigarettes
  • drinking alcohol
  • inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease
  • a family history of colon polyps
  • uncontrolled type 2 diabetes
  • African-American heritage, as this increases the risk of colon cancer

A doctor may recommend that older adults and people with risk factors for colon polyps have regular screening exams, especially after 50 years of age.

Diagnosis

A doctor may begin by taking a person’s medical history, assessing risk factors, and performing a physical exam. If they suspect colon polyps, they may recommend further tests. Catching colon polyps early can reduce the risk of complications.

Screening exams may include:

  • Colonoscopy. During a colonoscopy, the doctor inserts an illuminated camera tube called an colonoscope into the anus to examine the colon. They may then remove any polyps or take a biopsy, which is where a tissue sample is removed and send to a lab for examination under a microscope.
  • Flexible sigmoidoscopy. A shorter version of a colonoscope called a sigmoidoscope is used to examine a limited portion of the colon. If the doctor finds polyps, they will need to perform a colonoscopy to remove them.
  • Virtual colonoscopy. This is a noninvasive procedure where a doctor uses imaging methods to examine the colon. These may include X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. These tests may be less sensitive than colonoscopic tests. A person may have to swallow a barium solution to make the X-ray images clearer.
  • Stool exam. Doctors may also look for the presence of blood in stools or examine the stool DNA. Depending on the results, they may then perform a colonoscopy to investigate further.


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Treatment

Surgeons operating in theatre.
Doctors will usually recommend surgery to remove polyps.

Doctors will usually treat colon polyps by removing them. They may also suggest certain lifestyle changes to prevent colon polyps from reoccurring.

Doctors can remove colon polyps using the following methods:

  • Colonoscopy. Doctors can use a cutting instrument or an electrified wire loop on the end of a colonoscope to perform a polypectomy, or polyp removal. For smaller polyps, doctors may inject a liquid underneath the polyp to raise and isolate it from the surrounding area for easier removal.
  • Laparoscopy. During a laparoscopy, the doctor will make a small incision into the abdomen or pelvis and insert an instrument called a laparoscope into the bowel. They use this technique to remove polyps that are too large or cannot be removed safely by colonoscopy.
  • Removing the colon and rectum. This procedure, known as a total proctocolectomy, is only necessary when a person has a severe condition or cancer. Doctors recommend this option for those with rare inherited conditions, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). FAP is an inherited condition that causes cancer of the colon and rectum, and polyp removal may prevent cancer from developing.

After removing a polyp, the doctor will send it for lab testing where experts will check it for cancer.

A pathologist who is a specialist in analyzing tissue samples will examine the polyp tissue under a microscope and check whether it is benign or precancerous. The will base the recommended time interval for the next colonoscopy on this information plus the number and size of polyps.

In people who already have polyps or colon cancer, the doctor may prescribe aspirin and coxibs (COX-2 inhibitors) to stop new polyps from forming. For people with a family history of colon polyps, genetic counseling is recommended to prevent their development.

Prevention

People can reduce their risk of developing colon polyps by adopting healthy lifestyle habits, such as:

  • eating a low-fat diet
  • eating a diet high in fruits, vegetables, and fiber
  • keeping a normal body weight
  • quitting or avoiding cigarette smoking
  • avoid excessive alcohol use

People who have had colon polyps should get regular colon checkups, as they have a higher likelihood of developing others.


Outlook

A polyp is a growth of tissue on the lining of the colon and rectum that projects into the intestines.

People with colon polyps usually have no symptoms. Most colon polyps are harmless, though some types can become cancerous. Polyp removal is the best way to treat colon polyps and prevent cancer from developing.

People with risk factors should get regular screenings for colon polyps, especially if they are over 50 years of age.

If a person has polyps, they should follow their doctor’s advice about getting checkups and making lifestyle changes to help manage the condition.

Source Article from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322428.php

Medical News Today: How to boost serotonin and improve mood

Serotonin is a chemical in the brain that can affect mood. Eating foods that contain the essential amino acid known as tryptophan can help the body to produce more serotonin.

Foods, including salmon, eggs, spinach, and seeds are among those that help boost serotonin naturally.

Serotonin is a chemical found in the brain, blood, intestines, and connective tissues of the human body. It causes blood vessels to contract, helps transmit information across the nervous system, and has a role in brain function.

Serotonin is essential for overall health and wellbeing, and people often associate it with positive mood. But the brain is complex, and further research is needed to find out more about how serotonin works.

Nevertheless, research has linked low serotonin to mood disorders, and it may have a role to play in depression.

Reduced levels of serotonin in the brain may be a cause of memory problems and low mood. Also, low serotonin levels are more likely to affect a person negatively if they have had depression before.

In this article, we look at eight healthful foods that may help boost serotonin. We also cover the difference between serotonin and tryptophan, the importance of carbohydrates, and other tips for boosting serotonin and mood.


Serotonin vs. tryptophan

Smiling happy woman eating food in kitchen.
Tryptophan enables the production of serotonin.

Tryptophan is an amino acid that is important for the production of serotonin in the body. It is also key to brain function and has a role in healthy sleep.

People cannot make tryptophan in their bodies, so must obtain it from their diet.

Fortunately, tryptophan can be found in food whereas serotonin cannot.

Eating a healthful, balanced diet is an essential way to support mental as well as physical health. Including sources of tryptophan in the diet can have positive benefits on energy levels, mood, and sleep.


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Eight foods that naturally boost serotonin

Tryptophan, which goes into making serotonin, is commonly found in foods that contain protein. Although meat is often a key source of protein for many people, there are also many vegetarian and vegan sources.

The following foods are good sources of tryptophan:

1. Salmon

This oily fish is also a source of omega-3 fatty acids, which are important for health. These fatty acids can help support strong bones, healthy skin, and eye function.

Salmon is also a source of vitamin D, which is essential for strong bones and teeth, and healthy muscles.

Eating two portions of oily fish per week should provide enough tryptophan for most people. Vegans and vegetarians can get omega-3 from pumpkin seeds, walnuts, and soya.

2. Poultry

Poultry includes chicken, turkey, and goose. Lean poultry, such as chicken breast, will usually be high in protein and low in fat.

3. Eggs

Some ways of cooking and preparing eggs are more healthful than others. Frying an egg adds a lot of fat, which makes it a less healthful option.

Boiling or poaching an egg does not add any additional fat. Making an omelet and eating it with a salad can be a good option for a light meal.

4. Spinach

Dark green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, are a source of tryptophan.

Spinach is also a good source of iron. Iron helps the body to make healthy red blood cells. A lack of iron in the diet can lead to anemia, low energy, or difficulty breathing.

5. Seeds

Pumpkin seeds in bowl.
Seeds are a plant source of tryptophan.

Seeds do not contain as much tryptophan as oily fish, poultry, or eggs. However, they are a good source of tryptophan and protein for vegetarians and vegans.

Some easy ways to eat more seeds include:

  • sprinkling seeds onto a salad
  • mixing nuts and seeds for a snack
  • choosing seeded bread
  • adding seeds to cereal, porridge, or yogurt

6. Milk

Milk is also a good source of calcium, which helps to build healthy bones and teeth.

Choosing a low-fat option can be more healthful than full-fat milk, particularly for people watching their saturated fat intake.

7. Soy products

Products containing soy, such as tofu, soya milk, or soy sauce, are a source of tryptophan. These can be a good option for vegetarians and vegans.

8. Nuts

Nuts are a good source of protein, healthful fats, and fiber. Snacking on a few nuts between meals can help a person to feel fuller for longer.

Why are carbohydrates important?

Carbohydrates are one of the body’s main sources of energy. Healthful, nutrient-dense carbohydrate sources include fruits, vegetables, and whole-grain breads and pastas.

The majority of serotonin in the body is made in the gut, while the brain is where a further small amount is made. Tryptophan needs carbohydrates to be able to reach the brain and create serotonin.

Foods that contain tryptophan are most effective if eaten alongside carbohydrates.


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Other tips for boosting serotonin and mood

Man drinking a glass of water.
Staying hydrated can help to maintain correct brain function.

A steady supply of energy throughout the day can help to balance mood. Whole grains are digested slowly by the body, which means they release energy gradually. Healthful snacks, such as nuts and seeds or fruit can provide energy between meals.

Drinking plenty of fluids during the day keeps the body and brain hydrated. This is critical for energy levels and correct brain functioning.

Having a healthy gut is vital for the production of serotonin. The following can help promote a healthy gut:

  • including prebiotic- and probiotic-rich foods in the diet
  • limiting foods that negatively alter gut bacteria, such as artificial sweeteners, trans fats, and processed and refined sugars

There is a link between serotonin and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). People can be affected by SAD during the winter months when there is less daylight. It can cause low mood, lack of energy, and disrupted sleep.

Sunshine may trigger the production of serotonin. So, getting some daylight every day, even in the winter months, could help to improve a person’s mood.

Exercise has benefits for mental as well as physical health. It may reduce the risk of depression and provide an immediate mood boost as it releases endorphins, which help cope with pain or stress.

Feeling positive is often about balance. Diet, exercise, sleep, and a positive outlook are all key elements to improving mood.

Source Article from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/322416.php